All You Need To Know About Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

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Published on: 07-Mar-2023

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Updated on : 30-Nov-2023

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Anjali Dwivedi

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All You Need To Know About Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

All You Need To Know About Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

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If your blood pressure is below 90/60, you have hypotension, a medical condition that requires treatment.

Two numbers represent the results of measuring blood pressure. The first number, which is the higher of the two, represents the systolic pressure, or the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts and fills them with blood. Diastolic pressure, or the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats, is measured by the second number.

Generally, a systolic/diastolic reading of less than 120/80 is considered healthy. Therefore, undiagnosed or asymptomatic low blood pressure typically is not a cause for alarm or treatment in healthy persons. Low blood pressure, however, is not always a benign indication of health; in the elderly, it might indicate a condition that could lead to dangerously low blood pressure and a lack of blood supply to the brain and heart. One of the first steps to treating low blood pressure includes adopting a diet plan for the medical condition.

Table Of Contents
1. What Is Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)?
2. Types Of Hypotension
3. Is Hypotension Symptomatic?
4. Common Factors Leading To Hypotension
5. The Final Say
6. FAQs

What is Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)?

When the top number (systolic) of a person's blood pressure reading is less than 90 mm Hg or the bottom number (diastolic) is less than 60 mm Hg, this is termed low blood pressure (diastolic). The threshold at which one person's blood pressure is regarded as safe may be different from that of another. Low blood pressure may not manifest itself at all, or it will manifest as dizziness and fainting. Extremely low blood pressure is a medical emergency in several cases.

Deficiency in fluid intake is just one of several potential causes of low blood pressure, which also includes more significant health issues. However, this can be managed by adopting a better lifestyle directed towards improved metabolism, gut health and flushing out toxins by detoxification. In addition, discovering the root cause of low blood pressure is crucial for effectively treating the condition.

Types Of Hypotension
There exist many types of hypotension that are caused due to various reasons, some of which are listed below:

1.The Onset Of Orthostatic Hypotension (Postural Hypotension)

What we mean by "postural hypotension" is a dip in blood pressure experienced immediately after rising from a seated or lying down position. Dehydration, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, various medical conditions, and some drugs contribute to this problem. Generally, those over 60 are more likely to have hypotension.

2. Postprandial Hypotension

One to two hours after eating, blood pressure naturally drops. It primarily affects the elderly, including those with hypertension or illnesses of the autonomic nervous system, such as Parkinson's disease. Avoiding alcohol and eating modest, low-carbohydrate meals like the ones suggested in the DASH diet plan may help alleviate discomfort.

3. Neurally Mediated Hypotension

This is a decrease in blood pressure caused by prolonged standing. This type of low blood pressure is more common in children and young people. A failure in the heart's ability to relay messages to the brain could cause this condition.

4. Orthostatic Hypotension And Multiple-System Atrophy

This extremely uncommon condition, also known as Shy-Drager syndrome, affects the neurological system, which regulates vital processes, including blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and digestion. Insomnia is linked to extremely high blood pressure when lying down.

Is Hypotension Symptomatic?

When blood pressure drops suddenly or accompanies other symptoms, it could indicate an underlying health issue.

An unexpected drop in blood pressure can be life-threatening. For example, if your blood pressure drops from 110/80 to 90/60, you may feel lightheaded and dizzy. This is a shift of only 20 mm Hg. Drastic decreases, such as those brought on by serious infections, allergic responses, or uncontrolled bleeding, can be fatal.
 

Signs Of Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Include:

  • Diminished or hazy perception
  • Symptoms of dizziness or light-headedness
  • Fainting\Fatigue
  • Negative effects on concentration
  • Nausea

Shock is an emergency medical condition caused by extremely low blood pressure. Shock manifests itself in a variety of ways, including:

  • Bewilderment, especially among the elderly
  • Having skin that is both cold and damp
  • Lightening of the skin (pallor)
  • Shallow, rapid breathing
  • Weak and irregular heartbeat

Common Factors Leading To Hypotension

There are numerous causes of hypotension. Hypotension can result from a variety of factors.

1. Orthostatic Hypotension: If you stand up too rapidly without giving your body time to adjust, you risk developing orthostatic hypotension.

2. Diseases Of The Central Nervous System: It can interfere with the body's ability to maintain healthy blood pressure, and Parkinson's disease is only one example. Because the digestive process requires more blood as it works to digest food, those with hypotension due to these illnesses may experience the symptoms of low blood pressure after eating.

3. Decreased Blood Volume: Major bleeding can lower blood pressure. Low blood volume can also be caused by not drinking enough water.

Arrhythmias, pulmonary embolisms, heart attacks, and collapsed lungs are potentially fatal medical issues.

4. Life-Threatening Conditions: Hypotension can also be a symptom of a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) or an immunological reaction to severe infection (sepsis).

5. Heart And Lung Condition: Hypotension can be caused by issues with the heart and lungs, including arrhythmias and respiratory failure. One such reason is advanced heart failure, caused by cardiac muscle weakness.

6. Prescription Medicines: Hypotension is a possible side effect of several pharmaceuticals used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, erectile dysfunction, neurological disorders, and mental health disorders. Do not discontinue taking any medication without first talking to your doctor.

7. Alcohol Or Recreational Drugs: Substances used for recreation can reduce blood pressure, as can alcohol (though the latter's effects wear off quickly, and heavy drinkers are at risk for hypertension in the long run). Certain herbal supplements, vitamins, and home treatments can help reduce blood pressure even though they are not drugs. Reason enough to always include these when discussing your prescription regimen with your doctor.

8. Pregnancy: It is possible to experience orthostatic hypotension during pregnancy's first and second trimesters. Low blood pressure might also be caused by bleeding or other pregnancy problems.

9. Temperature Extremes: Too much heat and cold can exacerbate hypotension's consequences.

The Final Say 
It is common practice to investigate the underlying causes of low blood pressure before beginning treatment. If the underlying cause of the hypotension can be addressed, the condition usually improves without any further medical intervention.
Your doctor may alter your dosage or instruct you to stop taking blood pressure medication altogether if they observe a control over a period. Even if the root of the problem is unidentified, it can still be treated effectively. Hypotension can be cured, but only if there is a treatable underlying reason.
 

FAQs

1. How to reduce Hypotension during pregnancy?

Self-care for low blood pressure during pregnancy:

1.Do not get up too rapidly from a sitting or sleeping position.

2.Avoid prolonged periods of standing.

3.Consume many modest meals daily.

4.Avoid long, hot showers and baths.

5.Take in some extra fluids.

6.Wear comfortable clothes.

2. How much can genetic hypotension affect one’s health?

A connection between hereditary and lifestyle factors on blood pressure was also discovered.

1.A significant difference in diastolic blood pressure between current and never-smokers is associated with genetic interactions from cigarette smoking.

2.Biological evidence that various genes influence blood pressure in current versus former drinkers.

3.Observable evidence that a person's degree of physical activity moderates the effects of their genes on their blood pressure.

3. How to deal with a sudden drop in blood pressure?

The advice includes increasing salt intake and fluids for those with low blood pressure, but it is important to consult a medical professional first. Support stockings and medications such as fludrocortisone can also be used to treat hypotension. But, again, it is important to consider individual medical needs and consult a professional before making changes.

4. Can taking high doses of painkillers lead to low blood pressure?

There is minimal direct evidence that opioids impair heart contractility. However, when combined with other drugs like benzodiazepines, opioid usage might lead to reduced heart function. When used at analgesic levels, opioids can cause bradycardia and vasodilation, which can occasionally cause oedema, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope.

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