Type 2 Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know



Published on: 13-Mar-2023


10 min read




Harsimran Kaur


Type 2 Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Type 2 Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

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Do you have a sweet tooth? But diabetes comes your way every time you crave something deliciously sweet?

The cases of diabetes are common and rising. But with a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and maintaining body weight, you can prevent or delay the impacts of type 2 diabetes. 

Diabetes is a condition that develops when cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose) and use it as fuel. As a result, the bloodstream starts accumulating additional sugar in the body.

Mismanagement of diabetes can have catastrophic effects, including causing harm to the heart, kidneys, eyes, nerves, and many other bodily organs and tissues. As it causes various medical condition, it is essential to treat the issue on time. And this piece will cover different aspects of this condition, including diagnosis, treatment, medications, and more. 

Table Of Contents

1.Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

2.Type 2 Diabetes Management

3.Insulin Therapy In Type 2 Diabetes

4.Indications Of Trouble

5.Dietitian’s Recommendations

6.The Final Say


Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

If you notice the symptoms of diabetes, it is essential to take a test, and the glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test helps to determine type 2 diabetes. It checks for the average blood sugar level over the previous months. As the results appear, this is how to interpret them: 

1.A value of less than 5.7% is considered normal.

2.Therefore, between 5.7% and 6.4% of people have prediabetes.

3.And if the test shows a 6.5% or higher result, it is a case of diabetes.  

However, if the A1C test is not accessible or the patient has certain factors that make this test difficult or inaccurate, doctors may advise the following tests for the diagnosis:

1. Random Test For Blood Sugar

Millimoles of sugar per litre (mmol/L) of blood or milligrammes per deciliter (mg/dL) is used to determine blood sugar levels. Any result of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher indicates diabetes, especially if the person also experiences symptoms like extreme thirst and frequent urination. It appears accurate regardless of the time gap between the last meal.

To take the test, the specialist will take the blood after fasting for the previous night, and this is how you will interpret it:

  • An average level is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L).
  • Prediabetes happens when the blood sugar level is 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L).
  • It is a case of diabetes when two tests show a blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or greater.

2. Test For Oral Glucose Tolerance

Except for when a woman is pregnant, doctors recommend this test more rarely than the others. Before the test, one must abstain from food for the entire night before drinking a sweet beverage in the doctor's office. Then, the specialist will check the blood sugar levels at regular intervals for two hours. 

Here is how you will interpret the results:

  • An average level is shorter than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L).
  • Prediabetes is blood sugar levels between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L).
  • After two hours, 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or more indicates diabetes.

3. Screening

People of age 45 and older and the following groups should undergo routine testing for type 2 diabetes with diagnostic tests:

  • Under-45-year-olds with above weight limitations have one or more risk factors for diabetes and take the test.
  • Females with a history of gestational diabetes must go for the test.
  • People with prediabetes diagnosis have a risk of developing diabetes and should take the test.
  • Overweight children with a history of type 2 diabetes in their families or another risk factor also need the diagnosis with effective weight loss plan.

4. Following A Diagnosis

After the diagnosis, doctors may prescribe additional tests to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as they frequently call for distinct forms of care. 

At least twice a year, doctors will perform the A1C test whenever there are medication modifications. And they may conduct additional routine diagnostic exams to check for comorbid diseases or diabetes-related complications.

Type 2 Diabetes Management

The following actions can assist in maintaining high blood sugar levels to normal levels, which can help delay or stop issues:

1. Eating Well

Contrary to popular belief, no special diet exists for those with diabetes. However, focusing on the following things while dieting is necessary: 

  • A regular mealtime and snacking schedule
  • Reduced serving sizes
  • Increase intake of high-fibre foods like fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Limit starchy veggies, refined grains, and sweets
  • Small portions of low-fat dairy, meat, and seafood
  • Healthful cooking oils, like canola or olive oil
  • Less energy-dense.
  • Make a plan for balanced meals.
  • Check carbohydrate intake to maintain more stable blood sugar levels.

2. Physical Exercise

Exercise is a must for shedding extra pounds and keeping a healthy weight. It will also help in controlling blood sugar levels. However, before beginning or making changes to your exercise routine, consult a specialist to be sure that the activities suit your current physical state.

3. Aerobic Activity

Pick an aerobic activity you enjoy, like biking, running, swimming, or walking. Adults should strive for 150 minutes or more of weekly moderate aerobic exercise, or 30 minutes or more, on most days. Kids should engage in 60 minutes of moderate to strenuous aerobic training daily.

4. Resistance Training

Strength, balance, and capacity for daily activities improve through resistance training, and yoga, callisthenics, and weightlifting are a few forms.

Adults with type 2 diabetes should complete 2-3 weekly resistance exercise sessions. In addition, at least three days a week, kids should participate in exercises that increase their flexibility and strength. Sports, resistance training, and playground equipment climbing are a few examples of this. 

5. Weight Loss

Weight loss positively impacts blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood sugar regulation. Once the body weight drops as little as 5%, these indicators may start improving. However, health and illness management benefits increase as the person loses weight. Getting assistance from a nutritionist to set goals and make lifestyle changes will help. 

6. Checking Blood Sugar Level

To ensure the person stays within the goal range, the doctor will recommend frequently checking blood sugar levels. For instance, they would advise the person to test before or after exercise once daily. If taking insulin is practised, the person might need to repeat this process several times daily.

Insulin Therapy In Type 2 Diabetes

Specific type 2 diabetics require insulin therapy. The doctor advises this therapy when the patient fails to achieve blood sugar targets with lifestyle changes and other drugs.

 Different forms of insulin are various. Long-acting insulin functions daily or overnight to maintain stable blood sugar levels. You can take short-acting insulin during mealtimes. The doctor decides the suitable insulin for the patient.

Insulin type, dosage, and schedule may fluctuate depending on steady blood sugar levels. A patient gets most insulin varieties through injection. 

Indications Of Trouble

It is critical to check blood sugar levels to prevent serious consequences regularly. Here are a few indications of trouble you need to observe:

1. High Blood Sugar

High blood sugar can be brought on by eating particular foods, being ill, or not taking medications as prescribed. Some symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, and cloudy vision.

2. Low Sugar Levels

Low blood sugar is when the blood sugar level falls below the desired range. Many things might cause blood sugar levels to drop, including skipping meals or accidentally taking more medicine. Some symptoms include perspiring, weakness, hunger, cloudy vision, speech slur, migraine, and anger.

Dietitian’s Recommendations

If a person experiences any symptoms of low blood sugar, they must immediately consume fruit juice, glucose tablets, hard candies, or another source of sugar to boost body sugar levels. Then, in 15 minutes, repeat the blood test. Repeat the sugar consumption if the levels are different from where they were. After levels stabilise, consume a meal. 

The Final Say

As cases of diabetes are common, regularly checking your blood sugar levels is necessary, and if you notice something unusual, immediately go for a diagnosis. In addition, getting suitable treatment with exercise, diet, and supplements is essential to improve the situation.


1. What are diabetes symptoms?

Frequent urination at night, thirst, weight loss, hunger, and dehydrated skin are a few symptoms of diabetes. 

2. What are the types of diabetes?

Diabetes is of four common types.

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)
  • Gestational

3. What is the best food for a diabetic patient?

  • Vegetables include tomatoes, peppers, greens, broccoli, and carrots.
  • Fruits like oranges, melons, berries, apples, and bananas.
  • Grains


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