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    • cal19-November-2022 adminSana Fakir

      Insulin Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Understanding diabetes and insulin management are crucial to maintain good health.

      Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which there is either a complete lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the insulin that is present but the body cannot effectively use it (type 2 diabetes).

      In type 1 diabetes, where insulin is absent, it is crucial to supplement the body with insulin; however, in type 2, things get more complex and depend on the patient's blood sugar levels and reports.

      Your cells would be unable to properly absorb sugar (glucose) from your food if you have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, if left untreated, increases the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke. 

      You can manage this condition by altering your lifestyle, using medications and insulin, and scheduling routine appointments with your provider. In addition, taking a diet plan to manage medical conditions such as diabetes is one of the most natural ways of curing and managing them.

      So let us uncover some little-known facts about insulin management in type 2 diabetes.

      Table Of Contents

      1. What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

      2. Role Of Insulin In The Body

      3. When Should I Start Taking Insulin?

      4. Insulin Therapy 

      5. Insulin Delivery Options

      6. Where Should Insulin Be Injected?

      7. How To Give Insulin Injections?

      8. Dietitian’s Recommendations

      9. The Final Say

      10. FAQs

      What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

      As mentioned earlier, type 2 diabetes is a condition where your body has trouble correctly utilising the glucose from food. As a result, your pancreas creates insulin to assist your cells in using glucose (a hormone). 

      However, as time passes, your pancreas produces less insulin, and your cells develop insulin resistance. Your blood begins to become overly sugary as a result of this. Due to elevated blood sugar levels, type 2 diabetes can result in significant health issues.

      Chronic type 2 diabetes inhibits your body from using insulin as it should. As a result, type 2 diabetics are insulin resistant. People in their 40s and 50s are more likely to get this kind of diabetes. Earlier, it was referred to as adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form.

      Role Of Insulin In The Body

      Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone. Let us understand how insulin functions in the body and what happens if you have diabetes. 

      • Controls Blood Sugar Levels

      When you eat carbohydrates, they are converted into glucose, a sugar that serves as the body's primary energy source. The bloodstream is then filled with glucose. In response, the pancreas releases insulin, allowing glucose to enter the body's cells and fuel them with energy.

      • Saves Extra Glucose For Energy

      Extra glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver when insulin levels are high after eating. The liver transfers glycogen into the bloodstream as glucose when insulin levels are low between meals. This maintains control over blood sugar levels.

      You Can Also Read Insulin: What It Is, How It Works And The Benefits

      However, if you have diabetes, you must consider this:

      • Your glucose levels will rise after eating because there is insufficient insulin to transport glucose into your body's cells. People with type 2 diabetes do not create enough insulin and do not utilise insulin effectively (insulin deficiency). Patients with type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin.
      • If untreated, high blood sugar can result in consequences like blindness, nerve damage, and kidney damage.

      When Should I Start Taking Insulin?

      Various insulin varieties are available, and each one controls blood sugar at a different rate and for a different amount of time. Therefore, your doctor may frequently suggest that you blend other insulins. 

      Your doctor will determine when which types of insulin you require and how much you need based on the diabetes type, glucose levels, how much your blood sugar swings throughout the day, and your lifestyle.

      Insulin Therapy

      In the case of type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy is essential for replenishing the insulin your body cannot make. In addition, insulin therapy may be necessary if other treatments cannot keep type 2 diabetics' or gestational diabetics' blood glucose levels within the acceptable range. Insulin therapy can help prevent diabetes complications by maintaining blood sugar levels within your goal range.

      Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an initial A1C level of more than 9% or if diabetes is not controlled while receiving adequate oral glycemic management are advised to start insulin therapy. 

      At 0.3 units per kg as an augmentation or 0.6 to 1.0 units per kg as a replacement, insulin therapy can be initiated. When employing replacement therapy, the daily insulin dose is divided into two parts: a basal portion and a bolus portion, given before breakfast, lunch, and dinner.

      Insulin Delivery Option

      Because the digestive system would break it down before it could operate, insulin pills are not available. There are other ways to give insulin, though. Which option is ideal for your lifestyle and treatment needs can be determined by your doctor.

      The options include: 

      • Insulin syringe 
      • Insulin pump
      • Insulin pen 
      • Inhaler
      • Injection port

      Where Should Insulin Be Injected?

      You should inject insulin into the fatty tissue directly below your skin. Your body will absorb the insulin too rapidly, it will last less time, and the injection will be more painful if you inject it deeper into your muscle. Low blood glucose levels could be the outcome of this.

      Those who inject insulin every day should switch up their infusion sites. This is significant because lipodystrophy might result from continually utilising the same area. In this disorder, fat either degrades or accumulates beneath the skin, resulting in lumps or indentations that prevent insulin absorption.

      While moving across your belly, maintain an inch between each injection site. Alternatively, you can inject insulin into your arm, thigh, buttocks, or other body parts.

      How To Give Insulin Injection?

      Below are the measures that you should take while giving an insulin injection.

      • Maintain your shots  2 inches (5 cm) away from the navel and 1 inch (2.5 cm) away from the scars.
      • A damaged, swollen, or painful area should not receive a shot.
      • Never inject into a lumpy, stiff, or numb area.
      • You should choose an injection site that is tidy and dry. If your skin is unclean, wash it with soap and water. Avoid wiping the injection site with alcohol.
      • Insulin needs to reach the fat tissue just below the skin.
      • Insert the needle at a 45-degree angle while pinching the skin.
      • You might be able to inject straight up and down if your skin is thicker (at a 90-degree angle). However, Check with your service provider first.
      • Completely insert the needle into the skin. Remove the skin that has been pinched. Until it is fully absorbed, carefully and consistently inject the insulin.
      • Keep the syringe in place for five seconds after injecting.
      • At the same angle as it was inserted, pull the needle out. On the table, place the syringe. 
      • Put pressure on the injection site for a few seconds. After the injection, if your injection site spills insulin. Contact your service provider if this happens regularly. The injection site or angle can be changed.

      Dietitian’s Recommendation 

      It is a widespread condition that's frequently brought on by certain lifestyle choices. However, factors including age, family history, and genetics can all raise the probability of a diagnosis.

      Type 2 diabetes can be managed and even reversed with the proper diet, such as a low-carb diet, lifestyle adjustments and consuming foods that help to manage diabetes. For more serious cases, medication is available. Consult your dietitian about creating a treatment plan for type 2 diabetes that fits your diet and lifestyle.

                                                                      -Dietitian Lavina Chauhan

      The Final Say

      If diabetes is not managed, it might result in major health issues. However, despite your diagnosis, you can remain healthy and in high spirits if you adhere to your doctor's prescribed treatment plan and lead a healthy lifestyle. 

      Making good dietary choices, exercising frequently, maintaining a healthy weight, lowering your stress level, and making other little lifestyle changes will make living with diabetes simpler.

      FAQs

      1. For type 2 diabetes, what type of insulin is used?

      Healthcare professionals typically advise using "basal" insulin, which is comprised of intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin, to maintain blood sugar control throughout the day, when insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes is started.

      2. When should a type 2 diabetic take insulin?

      Short- or rapid-acting insulin is injected just before or during meals to manage blood sugar levels. To maintain stable blood sugar levels between meals and overnight, intermediate- or long-acting insulin is administered. At mealtimes, rapid-acting insulin is administered, and once or twice daily, long-acting insulin.

      3. How many insulin units are considered normal?

      For every 12 to 15 grams of carbohydrates consumed, the average person needs to take roughly 1 unit of insulin. Depending on how sensitive you are to insulin, there are some differences in this.

      4. How much insulin can you take daily?

      If the initial fasting plasma glucose is more than 250 or the HbA1c is higher than 10%, insulin therapy must frequently be initiated.

      5. How much insulin can you take per day?

      When daily insulin doses exceed 200 units/day, the volume of U-100 insulin needed makes insulin delivery challenging.  A maximum of 100 units of insulin can be injected with a syringe, and 60–80 units can be injected using an insulin pen device.

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