Discover Top 4 Tests For Diabetes And Different Methods To Check At Home!

Medical Condition


Published on: 19-Feb-2024


10 min read




Amrita Sandhu


Discover Top 4 Tests For Diabetes And Different Methods To Check At Home!

Discover Top 4 Tests For Diabetes And Different Methods To Check At Home!

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Feeling tired, thirsty, or experiencing unexplained weight changes? These could be signs of undiagnosed diabetes, a condition affecting millions worldwide. Don't wait in the dark! Timely diagnosis and effective management are crucial for maintaining a healthy and fulfilling life for individuals with diabetes. 

Diabetes is a prevalent and potentially life-altering medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. However, there are diagnostic tests to assess blood sugar levels, evaluate overall health, and tailor treatment plans, procedures, and implications for managing this chronic condition. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the 4 top tests for diabetes, shedding light on their significance so that you can take control of your health. 

Further, you will discover some easy ways by which you can check for diabetes at home along with different tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Let's get into the topic! 

Table Of Contents

  1. What Are The 4 Different Tests To Diagnose Diabetes?

  2. How Can You Check For Diabetes At Home?

  3. Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Tests

  4. The Final Say

  5. FAQs

  6. References 

What Are The 4 Different Tests To Diagnose Diabetes?

Diabetes is a medical condition which is affecting millions of people worldwide and the numbers are to touch billions by the end of this decade. You should be aware of the types of blood sugar tests. So here is the list of the 4 top tests for diabetes, read further to know: 

1. Fasting Blood Sugar Test (FBS)

It is one of the important tests for diabetes. This test is typically conducted after an overnight fast, providing a baseline measurement of the individual's fasting blood sugar concentration. The fasting blood sugar test, also known as the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, is a fundamental diagnostic tool. 

Offering a more accurate representation of the body's ability to regulate glucose during periods of inactivity. For assessing blood glucose levels fasting is crucial because it eliminates the impact of recent meals.


  • Except for water for at least 8 hours before the test, a person avoids drinking and eating anything else.

  • Usually in the morning empty stomach the blood sample is collected and sent for analysis in the laboratory.


The normal range of fasting blood sugar is 70-100 mg/dL, but in prediabetes the range shows up to 100-125 mg/dL and more than 125 mg/dL is considered to be an indication of diabetes. So, it is important to look at the levels in FBS.


  • Monitoring blood sugar control in individuals with diabetes Fasting blood sugar tests are essential for the initial diagnosis.

  • To maintain optimal blood sugar levels regular testing aids in adjusting diabetes care plans and lifestyle modifications.

  • As per diabetes statistics in India in 2019, almost 77 million people were diagnosed with diabetes.

2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

It involves measuring blood sugar levels before and after the consumption of a glucose-rich solution. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a more comprehensive assessment of the body's ability to metabolise glucose

This test is particularly useful in diagnosing gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.


  • Overnight fasting for the conduction of the test is required.

  • A precise amount of glucose solution is consumed by the person who wants to check the indication of diabetes.

  • Fasting blood sugar is measured before this test as a baseline.

  • Usually, 1 and 2 hours after consuming the glucose solution blood sugar levels are measured at specific intervals.


Blood sugar levels below 140 mg/dL after 2 hours show normal results. Whereas more the 140-199 mg/dL indicates glucose tolerance is impaired and if the sugar levels are near 200 mg/dL or are higher after 2 hours of the glucose solution consumption detects diabetes.


If the fasting blood sugar test does not provide accurate or relevant results then OGTT is considered valuable for diabetes diagnostics. Mostly this test is conducted during pregnancy to check gestational diabetes.

Also Read: Hypertensive Disorders In Pregnancy: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment 

3. Haemoglobin A1C (HBA1C) Test

The HbA1c test reflects average blood sugar levels over the past two to three months. The haemoglobin A1c test, often referred to simply as A1c, offers a longer-term perspective on blood sugar control. 

This test is considered a cornerstone in managing diabetes. Unlike fasting tests that provide a snapshot of current glucose levels, providing insights into the effectiveness of treatment plans and lifestyle modifications.


A blood sample is taken, making it a convenient option for patients; no fasting is required for the A1c test, and the percentage of haemoglobin is measured. That has glucose attached (glycated haemoglobin). 


  • The normal range of HbA1c is 5.7%

  • More than 5.7- 6.4 HbA1c is considered prediabetic

  • Levels more than 6.4 is an indication of diabetes.


  • For long-term monitoring of blood sugar control, A1c testing is crucial.

  • By reducing the impact of daily fluctuations in blood sugar levels provides a more comprehensive analysis.

  • To assess the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions healthcare providers use HbA1c results to adjust treatment plans.

  • About 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, the majority living in low-and middle-income countries, and 1.5 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year. Both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades.

4. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM)

Unlike traditional tests that provide periodic snapshots, CGM provides a continuous stream of data. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) represents a technological advancement in diabetes management, enabling a more nuanced understanding of blood sugar patterns facilitating proactive adjustments to treatment plans and offering real-time insights into blood sugar fluctuations throughout the day and night. 


  • To measure glucose levels in the interstitial fluid, a small sensor is inserted on the abdomen or under the skin. The data is transmitted from the CGM to the smartphone app or monitoring device through the sensor.

  • The CGM is a good product that provides real-time information on medications, physical activity, mental state, and food response on blood sugar levels.


  • Post-meal spikes or nocturnal variations in blood sugar levels are identified by CGM which helps healthcare providers to identify the ongoing trends of the blood sugar fluctuations in the body and with the help of it doctors can plan the treatment.

  • To plan lifestyle recommendations for individuals with diabetes and personalised treatment the CGM comes in handy.


The use of CGM is for type 1 diabetes people because people with type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy where CGM does not work also it is not recommended for women who are pregnant and have gestational diabetes. Leading to more precise and effective management, a more comprehensive understanding of blood sugar dynamics is being made.

NOTE: The above tests are considered both for type 1 and type 2 diabetes assessment.

Also Read: Plant-Based Diet For Diabetes: Healthy And Tasty Meals Vegan Diabetic Diet 

How Can You Check For Diabetes At Home?

Wondering how to test for diabetes at home? Here are a few home tests you can try:

1. Blood Glucose Meters

A small drop of blood, usually obtained by pricking the finger with these devices, allows individuals with diabetes to measure their blood glucose levels at home. The procedure is to place a drop of blood on a test strip, and the meter provides a reading of the current blood sugar level.

2. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) 

A small sensor is inserted under the skin, and it continuously measures glucose levels in the interstitial fluid.  CGM systems provide real-time data on blood sugar levels. The data is transmitted to a monitoring device or smartphone app, offering insights into trends and fluctuations.

3. Urine Tests

Some over-the-counter urine test strips can indicate elevated glucose levels. However, these are less accurate than blood tests and are not commonly used for diagnosing diabetes.

4. Ketone Testing

Elevated ketone levels may indicate diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious complication of diabetes. Ketone testing strips can be used to check for the presence of ketones in the urine or blood. 

If you suspect you have diabetes or are at risk, it's crucial to consult with a healthcare professional. Regular medical check-ups and professional diagnostic tests are crucial to get valuable information for managing diabetes. 

Also, these home-monitoring methods are a small substitute to spread awareness and consult the doctor within time for accurate treatment.

Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Tests

These scientific differences emphasise the specific aspects of each test and their relevance to diagnosing Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes:


Type 1 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Blood Glucose Tests

Measures glucose concentrations in blood.

Measures glucose concentrations in blood.

Fasting Blood Sugar Test (FBS)

Assesses glucose levels after an overnight fast.

Assesses glucose levels after an overnight fast.

Random Blood Sugar Test

Evaluates blood sugar levels at any time of the day.

Evaluates blood sugar levels at any time of the day.

Haemoglobin A1c Test

Determines the average blood sugar over 2-3 months.

Determines the average blood sugar over 2-3 months.

Autoantibody Tests

Identifies autoantibodies targeting pancreatic beta cells involved in insulin production.

Identifies autoantibodies targeting pancreatic beta cells involved in insulin production.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

Not typically conducted for Type 1 Diabetes.

Involves fasting, followed by oral glucose consumption, and measuring blood sugar at intervals.

C-peptide Test

Not typically conducted for Type 1 Diabetes.

Measures C-peptide levels, indicating insulin production; may show normal or elevated levels in Type 2, suggesting insulin presence with potential resistance.

The Final Say

Regular testing, combined with proactive lifestyle modifications and personalised treatment plans, empowers individuals with diabetes to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. 

As technology continues to advance, the future holds promising developments in diabetes diagnostics and management, from fasting blood sugar tests providing initial insights to continuous glucose monitoring offering real-time data, these tests collectively contribute to a comprehensive approach. 

Further enhancing the quality of care for those affected by this widespread condition in understanding and controlling diabetes. while effectively managing their blood sugar levels. In conclusion, these 4 top tests for diabetes play crucial roles in the diagnosis, monitoring, and management of this chronic condition.


1. Which test is good for diabetes?

All the above-mentioned tests are considered the best tests for diabetes as they are being used worldwide to assess the prevalence of diabetes in individuals.

2. What is the 4-hour diabetes test?

The other name for a 4–5-hour diabetes test is the OGTT oral glucose tolerance test.

3. Are all the mentioned tests providing accurate results?

All the tests are aligned in a certain way so that if one test does not show results then a more detailed version of the test is conducted.

4. Can diabetes reverse?

Type 2 diabetes can reverse but Type can be managed not remitted.

5. Are all these tests safe?

Yes, all the above tests are safe if conducted in the presence of healthcare professionals.

6. What is the most accurate test for diabetes?

Fasting blood glucose is considered the most reliable test.


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